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Explanations for Water Whitening in Secondary Dispersion and Emulsion Polymer Films

Liu, Y, Gajewicz, AM, Rodin, V, Soer, W-J, Scheerder, J, Satgurunathan, G, McDonald, PJ and Keddie, JL (2016) Explanations for Water Whitening in Secondary Dispersion and Emulsion Polymer Films Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics, 54 (16). pp. 1658-1674.

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Abstract

The loss of optical transparency when polymer films are immersed in water, which is called “water whitening,” severely limits their use as clear barrier coatings. It is found that this problem is particularly acute in films deposited from polymers synthesized via emulsion polymerization using surfactants. Water whitening is less severe in secondary dispersion polymers, which are made by dispersing solution polymers in water without the use of surfactants. NMR relaxometry in combination with optical transmission analysis and electron microscopy reveal that some of the water sorbed in emulsion polymer films is contained within nano-sized “pockets” or bubbles that scatter light. In contrast, the water in secondary dispersion polymer films is mainly confined at particle interfaces, where it scatters light less strongly and its molecular mobility is reduced. The addition of surfactant to a secondary dispersion creates a periodic structure that displays a stop band in the optical transmission. The total amount of sorbed water is not a good indicator of polymers prone to water whitening. Instead, the particular locations of the water within the film must be considered. Both the amount of water and the size of the local water regions (as are probed by NMR relaxometry) are found to determine water whitening.

Item Type: Article
Subjects : subj_Physics
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Physics
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Liu, YUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gajewicz, AMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rodin, VUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Soer, W-JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Scheerder, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Satgurunathan, GUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
McDonald, PJUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Keddie, JLUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 15 August 2016
Funders : EPSRC
Identification Number : 10.1002/polb.24070
Copyright Disclaimer : This is the accepted version of the following article: Liu, Y., Gajewicz, A. M., Rodin, V., Soer, W.-J., Scheerder, J., Satgurunathan, G., McDonald, P. J. and Keddie, J. L. (2016), Explanations for water whitening in secondary dispersion and emulsion polymer films. J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 54: 1658–1674. doi:10.1002/polb.24070, which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/polb.24070/full. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with the Wiley Self-Archiving Policy [http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html].
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 05 Apr 2016 14:47
Last Modified : 22 Nov 2016 11:58
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/810349

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