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Regular Breakfast Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers in 9-to 10-Year-Old Children in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE): A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Donin, AS, Nightingale, CM, Owen, CG, Rudnicka, AR, Perkin, MR, Jebb, SA, Stephen, AM, Sattar, N, Cook, DG and Whincup, PH (2014) Regular Breakfast Consumption and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Markers in 9-to 10-Year-Old Children in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE): A Cross-Sectional Analysis PLOS MEDICINE, 11 (9), ARTN e.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Regular breakfast consumption may protect against type 2 diabetes risk in adults but little is known about its influence on type 2 diabetes risk markers in children. We investigated the associations between breakfast consumption (frequency and content) and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (particularly insulin resistance and glycaemia) and cardiovascular disease in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4,116 UK primary school children aged 9-10 years. Participants provided information on breakfast frequency, had measurements of body composition, and gave fasting blood samples for measurements of blood lipids, insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). A subgroup of 2,004 children also completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Among 4,116 children studied, 3,056 (74%) ate breakfast daily, 450 (11%) most days, 372 (9%) some days, and 238 (6%) not usually. Graded associations between breakfast frequency and risk markers were observed; children who reported not usually having breakfast had higher fasting insulin (percent difference 26.4%, 95% CI 16.6%-37.0%), insulin resistance (percent difference 26.7%, 95% CI 17.0%-37.2%), HbA1c (percent difference 1.2%, 95% CI 0.4%-2.0%), glucose (percent difference 1.0%, 95% CI 0.0%-2.0%), and urate (percent difference 6%, 95% CI 3%-10%) than those who reported having breakfast daily; these differences were little affected by adjustment for adiposity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity levels. When the higher levels of triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein for those who usually did not eat breakfast relative to those who ate breakfast daily were adjusted for adiposity, the differences were no longer significant. Children eating a high fibre cereal breakfast had lower insulin resistance than those eating other breakfast types (p for heterogeneity <0.01). Differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast frequency groups did not account for the differences in type 2 diabetes markers. CONCLUSIONS: Children who ate breakfast daily, particularly a high fibre cereal breakfast, had a more favourable type 2 diabetes risk profile. Trials are needed to quantify the protective effect of breakfast on emerging type 2 diabetes risk. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Item Type: Article
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Donin, ASUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nightingale, CMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Owen, CGUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rudnicka, ARUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Perkin, MRUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jebb, SAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stephen, AMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sattar, NUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cook, DGUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Whincup, PHUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 September 2014
Identification Number : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001703
Uncontrolled Keywords : Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Medicine, General & Internal, General & Internal Medicine, WHITE EUROPEAN ORIGIN, BODY-MASS INDEX, SKIPPING BREAKFAST, DIETARY-INTAKE, BLACK-AFRICAN, ETHNIC-DIFFERENCES, EATING FREQUENCY, UK CHILDREN, WEIGHT-GAIN, US ADULTS
Related URLs :
Additional Information : Copyright: © 2014 Donin et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 28 Mar 2017 15:54
Last Modified : 28 Mar 2017 15:54
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/809766

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