University of Surrey

Test tubes in the lab Research in the ATI Dance Research

A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya

Okotto-Okotto, J, Okotto, L, Price, H, Pedley, S and Wright, J (2015) A Longitudinal Study of Long-Term Change in Contamination Hazards and Shallow Well Quality in Two Neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, 12 (4). pp. 4275-4291.

[img]
Preview
Text
A longitudinal study of long-term change in contamination hazards and shallow well quality in two neighbourhoods of Kisumu, Kenya..pdf - ["content_typename_Published version (Publisher's proof or final PDF)" not defined]
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (1MB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (licence)
SRI_deposit_agreement.pdf
Available under License : See the attached licence file.

Download (33kB) | Preview

Abstract

Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing rapid urbanisation and many urban residents use groundwater where piped supplies are intermittent or unavailable. This study aimed to investigate long-term changes in groundwater contamination hazards and hand-dug well water quality in two informal settlements in Kisumu city, Kenya. Buildings, pit latrines, and wells were mapped in 1999 and 2013–2014. Sanitary risk inspection and water quality testing were conducted at 51 hand-dug wells in 2002 to 2004 and 2014. Pit latrine density increased between 1999 and 2014, whilst sanitary risk scores for wells increased between 2002 to 2004 and 2014 (n = 37, Z = −1.98, p = 0.048). Nitrate levels dropped from 2004 to 2014 (n = 14, Z = −3.296, p = 0.001), but multivariate analysis suggested high rainfall in 2004 could account for this. Thermotolerant coliform counts dropped between 2004 and 2014, with this reduction significant in one settlement. Hand-dug wells had thus remained an important source of domestic water between 1999 and 2014, but contamination risks increased over this period. Water quality trends were complex, but nitrate levels were related to both sanitary risks and rainfall. Given widespread groundwater use by the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa, the study protocol could be further refined to monitor contamination in hand-dug wells in similar settings.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Okotto-Okotto, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Okotto, LUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Price, HUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pedley, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wright, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 April 2015
Identification Number : 10.3390/ijerph120404275
Uncontrolled Keywords : Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Environmental Sciences, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION, GROUNDWATER, NITRATE, WATER, RAINFALL, AFRICA
Related URLs :
Additional Information : © 2015. Published under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 27 Oct 2015 16:15
Last Modified : 27 Oct 2015 16:15
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/808641

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year


Information about this web site

© The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom.
+44 (0)1483 300800