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Schistosoma mansoni Infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable?

Stothard, JR, Sousa-Figueiredo, JC, Betson, M, Adriko, M, Arinaitwe, M, Rowell, C, Besiyge, F and Kabatereine, NB (2011) Schistosoma mansoni Infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable? PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 5 (1).

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: in uganda, control of intestinal schistosomiasis with preventive chemotherapy is typically focused towards treatment of school-aged children; the needs of younger children are presently being investigated as in lakeshore communities very young children can be infected. In the context of future epidemiological monitoring, we sought to compare the detection thresholds of available diagnostic tools for Schistosoma mansoni and estimate a likely age of first infection for these children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: a total of 242 infants and preschool children (134 boys and 108 girls, mean age 2.9 years, minimum 5 months and maximum 5 years) were examined from Bugoigo, a well-known disease endemic village on Lake Albert. Schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and host antibodies to eggs were inspected to reveal a general prevalence of 47.5% (CI(95) 41.1-54.0%), as ascertained by a positive criterion from at least one diagnostic method. Although children as young as 6 months old could be found infected, the average age of infected children was between 3¼-3¾ years, when diagnostic techniques became broadly congruent. CONCLUSION: whilst different assays have particular (dis)advantages, direct detection of eggs in stool was least sensitive having a temporal lag behind antigen and antibody methods. Setting precisely a general age of first infection is problematic but if present Ugandan policies continue, a large proportion of infected children could wait up to 3-4 years before receiving first medication. To better tailor treatment needs for this younger ageclass, we suggest that the circulating cathodic antigen urine dipstick method to be used as an epidemiological indicator.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Stothard, JRUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sousa-Figueiredo, JCUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Betson, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Adriko, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Arinaitwe, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rowell, CUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Besiyge, FUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kabatereine, NBUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : January 2011
Identification Number : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000938
Uncontrolled Keywords : Animals, Antibodies, Helminth, Antigens, Helminth, Child, Preschool, Feces, Female, Humans, Infant, Male, Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosomiasis mansoni, Sensitivity and Specificity, Uganda
Related URLs :
Additional Information : Copyright: 2011 Stothard et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 14 Aug 2015 09:46
Last Modified : 14 Aug 2015 09:46
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/808123

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