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The exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particle emissions from concrete mixing, drilling and cutting activities

Azarmi, F, Kumar, P and Mulheron, M (2014) The exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particle emissions from concrete mixing, drilling and cutting activities Journal of Hazardous Materials, 279. pp. 268-279.

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Abstract

Abstract Building activities generate coarse (PM10 ≤ 10 μm), fine (PM2.5 ≤ 2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (<100 nm) making it necessary to understand both the exposure levels of operatives on site and the dispersion of ultrafine particles into the surrounding environment. This study investigates the release of particulate matter, including ultrafine particles, during the mixing of fresh concrete (incorporating Portland cement with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag, GGBS or Pulverised Fuel Ash, PFA) and the subsequent drilling and cutting of hardened concrete. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000 nm size range using a GRIMM particle spectrometer and a fast response differential mobility spectrometer (DMS50). The mass concentrations of PM2.5–10 fraction contributed ∼52–64% of total mass released. The ultrafine particles dominated the total particle number concentrations (PNCs); being 74, 82, 95 and 97% for mixing with GGBS, mixing with PFA, drilling and cutting, respectively. Peak values measured during the drilling and cutting activities were 4 and 14 times the background. Equivalent emission factors were calculated and the total respiratory deposition dose rates for PNCs for drilling and cutting were 32.97 ± 9.41 × 108 min−1 and 88.25 ± 58.82 × 108 min−1. These are a step towards establishing number and mass emission inventories for particle exposure during construction activities.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Civil and Environmental Engineering
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Azarmi, FUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kumar, PUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mulheron, MUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 30 August 2014
Identification Number : 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.003
Uncontrolled Keywords : Exposure rate, Emission factor, Particulate matter, Ultrafine particles, Concrete mixing, Drilling and cutting
Related URLs :
Additional Information : NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of Hazardous Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Journal of Hazardous Materials, 279, Aug 2014, DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.003.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 05 Sep 2014 08:54
Last Modified : 13 Sep 2014 01:33
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/805825

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