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The Reading of Components of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Evolutionary Approach for Filtering Normal Digital Fundus Imaging in Screening and Population Based Studies

Tang, HL, Goh, J, Hu, Y, Wang, S, Peto, T, Saleh, GM, Ling, BW-K and Al turk, LI (2013) The Reading of Components of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Evolutionary Approach for Filtering Normal Digital Fundus Imaging in Screening and Population Based Studies PLoS ONE, 8 (7).

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Abstract

In any diabetic retinopathy screening program, about two-thirds of patients have no retinopathy. However, on average, it takes a human expert about one and a half times longer to decide an image is normal than to recognize an abnormal case with obvious features. In this work, we present an automated system for filtering out normal cases to facilitate a more effective use of grading time. The key aim with any such tool is to achieve high sensitivity and specificity to ensure patients' safety and service efficiency. There are many challenges to overcome, given the variation of images and characteristics to identify. The system combines computed evidence obtained from various processing stages, including segmentation of candidate regions, classification and contextual analysis through Hidden Markov Models. Furthermore, evolutionary algorithms are employed to optimize the Hidden Markov Models, feature selection and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers. In order to evaluate its capability of identifying normal images across diverse populations, a population-oriented study was undertaken comparing the software's output to grading by humans. In addition, population based studies collect large numbers of images on subjects expected to have no abnormality. These studies expect timely and cost-effective grading. Altogether 9954 previously unseen images taken from various populations were tested. All test images were masked so the automated system had not been exposed to them before. This system was trained using image subregions taken from about 400 sample images. Sensitivities of 92.2% and specificities of 90.4% were achieved varying between populations and population clusters. Of all images the automated system decided to be normal, 98.2% were true normal when compared to the manual grading results. These results demonstrate scalability and strong potential of such an integrated computational intelligence system as an effective tool to assist a grading service. © 2013 Tang et al.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Computing Science
Authors :
AuthorsEmailORCID
Tang, HLUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Goh, JUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hu, YUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wang, SUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Peto, TUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Saleh, GMUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ling, BW-KUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Al turk, LIUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date : 1 July 2013
Identification Number : 10.1371/journal.pone.0066730
Additional Information : Copyright © Tang et. al
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 11 Oct 2013 15:26
Last Modified : 09 Jun 2014 13:35
URI: http://epubs.surrey.ac.uk/id/eprint/803950

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