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In situ analysis of cadmium sulphide chemical bath deposition by an optical fibre monitor

Wakeling, BR, Degamber, B, Kister, G, Lane, DW, Bailey, Melanie and Jeynes, Christopher (2012) In situ analysis of cadmium sulphide chemical bath deposition by an optical fibre monitor Thin Solid Films, 525. pp. 1-5.

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The CdS window layer in thin film solar cells is frequently grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Deposited films are typically less than 100 nm thick and the inability to identify the exact start of the deposition can make CBD an imprecise process. This paper describes the construction and testing of a simple optical fibre sensor that detects the start of the deposition process and also allows for its mechanism to be studied. The in situ optical fibre monitoring technique utilises the change in optical reflectance off the glass/deposited film/precursor solution interfaces at an operating wavelength of 1550 nm. A theoretical expression for the reflection of light from the interface is discussed and compared with experimental results. The monitoring technique shows the presence of two different deposition mechanisms. This result is confirmed by film densities calculated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and an optical model for ellipsometry measurements which indicates that the deposited CdS films consist of a double layer structure with a porous layer on top of a dense under layer. The application of the theoretical expression is optimised by assuming the refractive index of the CdS layer to be 2.02. The ellipsometry model shows that the refractive index of the CdS deposited is 2.14 for a two layer model of the film that included a porous upper layer through the effective medium approximation.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Chemistry
Authors :
Wakeling, BR
Degamber, B
Kister, G
Lane, DW
Date : 15 December 2012
DOI : 10.1016/j.tsf.2012.07.109
Copyright Disclaimer : © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 14 Jul 2017 12:01
Last Modified : 06 Jul 2019 05:12

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