Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation
Torriti, J, Hassan, MG and Leach, M (2010) Demand response experience in Europe: Policies, programmes and implementation ENERGY, 35 (4). pp. 1575-1583.
DR experience in Europe.pdf
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Over the last few years, load growth, increases in intermittent generation, declining technology costs and increasing recognition of the importance of customer behaviour in energy markets have brought about a change in the focus of Demand Response (DR) in Europe. The long standing programmes involving large industries, through interruptible tariffs and time of day pricing, have been increasingly complemented by programmes aimed at commercial and residential customer groups. Developments in DR vary substantially across Europe reflecting national conditions and triggered by different sets of policies, programmes and implementation schemes. This paper examines experiences within European countries as well as at European Union (EU) level, with the aim of understanding which factors have facilitated or impeded advances in DR. It describes initiatives, studies and policies of various European countries, with in-depth case studies of the UK, Italy and Spain. It is concluded that while business programmes, technical and economic potentials vary across Europe, there are common reasons as to why coordinated DR policies have been slow to emerge. This is because of the limited knowledge on DR energy saving capacities; high cost estimates for DR technologies and infrastructures; and policies focused on creating the conditions for liberalising the EU energy markets. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Divisions :||Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Centre for Environmental Strategy|
|Date :||1 April 2010|
|Identification Number :||10.1016/j.energy.2009.05.021|
|Uncontrolled Keywords :||Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Technology, Thermodynamics, Energy & Fuels, Demand response, European Union, Market liberalisation, Smart meter, ELECTRICITY|
|Additional Information :||NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Energy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Energy, 35(4), April 2010, DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2009.05.021.|
|Depositing User :||Symplectic Elements|
|Date Deposited :||11 Feb 2013 16:25|
|Last Modified :||23 Sep 2013 19:59|
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