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Shear forces in the contact patch of a braked racing tyre

Gruber, P and Sharp, RS (2012) Shear forces in the contact patch of a braked racing tyre Vehicle System Dynamics: international journal of vehicle mechanics and mobility, 50 (12). pp. 1761-1778.

Shear Forces in the Contact Patch of a Braked Racing Tyre_2012_PREPRINT.pdf
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This article identifies tyre modelling features that are fundamental to the accurate simulation of the shear forces in the contact patch of a steady-rolling, slipping and cambered racing tyre. The features investigated include contact patch shape, contact pressure distribution, carcass flexibility, rolling radius (RR) variations and friction coefficient. Using a previously described physical tyre model of modular nature, validated for static conditions, the influence of each feature on the shear forces generated is examined under different running conditions, including normal loads of 1500, 3000 and 4500 N, camber angles of 0° and−3°, and longitudinal slip ratios from 0 to−20%. Special attention is paid to heavy braking, in which context the aligning moment is of great interest in terms of its connection with the limit-handling feel. The results of the simulations reveal that true representations of the contact patch shape, carcass flexibility and lateral RR variation are essential for an accurate prediction of the distribution and the magnitude of the shear forces generated at the tread–road interface of the cambered tyre. Independent of the camber angle, the contact pressure distribution primarily influences the shear force distribution and the slip characteristics around the peak longitudinal force. At low brake-slip ratios, the friction coefficient affects the shear forces in terms of their distribution, while, at medium to high-slip ratios, the force magnitude is significantly affected. On the one hand, these findings help in the creation of efficient yet accurate tyre models. On the other hand, the research results allow improved understanding of how individual tyre components affect the generation of shear forces in the contact patch of a rolling and slipping tyre.

Item Type: Article
Divisions : Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering Sciences
Authors :
Date : 18 July 2012
Identification Number : 10.1080/00423114.2012.700404
Contributors :
Additional Information : This is an electronic version of an article published in Vehicle System Dynamics: International journal of vehicle mechanics and mobility(2012). Vehicle System Dynamics: International journal of vehicle mechanics and mobility is available online at:
Depositing User : Symplectic Elements
Date Deposited : 25 Aug 2015 17:25
Last Modified : 24 Feb 2016 09:59

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