Focal Ca2+ transient detection in smooth muscle.
Young, JS, Amos, RJ and Brain, KL (2009) Focal Ca2+ transient detection in smooth muscle. J Vis Exp (28). ISSN 1940-087X
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/1247
Ca2+ imaging of smooth muscle provides insight into cellular mechanisms that may not result in changes of membrane potential, such as the release of Ca2+ from internal stores, and allows multiple cells to be monitored simultaneously to assess, for example, coupling in syncytial tissue. Subcellular Ca2+ transients are common in smooth muscle, yet are difficult to measure accurately because of the problems caused by their stochastic occurrence, over an often wide field of view, in an organ that it prone to contract. To overcome this problem, we've developed a series of imaging protocols and analysis routines to acquire and then analyse, in an automated fashion, the frequency, location and amplitude of such events. While this approach may be applied in other contexts, our own work involves the detection of local purinergic Ca2+ transients for locating transmitter release with submicron resolution. ATP is released as a cotransmitter from autonomic nerves, where it binds to P2X1 receptors on the smooth muscle of the detrusor and vas deferens. Ca2+ enters the smooth muscle, resulting in purinergic neuroeffector Ca2+ transients (NCTs). The focal Ca2+ transients allow the optical monitoring of neurotransmitter release in a manner that has many advantages over electrophysiology. Apart from the greatly improved spatial resolution, optical recording has the additional advantage of allowing the recording of transmitter release from many distinguishable sites simultaneously. Furthermore, the optical plane of focus is easier to maintain or correct during long recording series than is the repositioning of an intracellular sharp microelectrode. In summary, a method for imaging of Ca2+ fluorescence is outlined which details the preparation of tissue, and the acquisition and analysis of data. We outline the use of several scripts for the analysis of such Ca2+ transients.
|Additional Information:||This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Algorithms, Aniline Compounds, Animals, Calcium, Fluoresceins, Indicators and Reagents, Microscopy, Confocal, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Muscle, Smooth, Neurotransmitter Agents, Receptors, Purinergic P2, Receptors, Purinergic P2X|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences > Biochemistry and Physiology|
|Deposited By:||Symplectic Elements|
|Deposited On:||22 May 2012 09:38|
|Last Modified:||16 Feb 2013 16:54|
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